Sidee loo difaaci karaa webiyada Somaliya la wadaagto Ethiopia iyo Kenya?..

Sidee loo difaaci karaa webiyada Somaliya la wadaagto Ethiopia iyo Kenya?..

Bishii March ee sanadkaan 2016 waxaa yaraaday ama guray biyihii webiga Shabelle. Saxaafadda iyo masuuliyiin dowladda ka tirsan ayaa u sababeeyey masiibadaas faragelin ay webiga ku sameysay Ethiopia.
Arrintaasi waxay walaac ku abuurtay shacabka Soomaaliyeed oo ay u muuqatay in wadamada aan kheyraadka biyaha wadaagno khatar gelin karaan nolosha dadka iyo xoolaha ku nool Somalia.
Waxaa kale oo arrintaasi ay banaanka soo dhigtay sida Somaliya ay ugu dheganugushahay biyo gabaabsiga, abaaraha iyo isbedelka roobabka Somaliya ay hesho. Sidoo kale waxaa soo baxday sida ay u dayac yihiin kheyraadka biyaha ay Somaliya la wadaagto wadamada aan deriska nahay. Ma jiro wax heshiis wadashaqayn iyo iskaashi ah oo ku saabsan maamulka, isticmaalka, daryeelka iyo ilaalinta kheyraadka biyaha soohdimaha ka gudba (transboundary watercourse) oo naga dhexeeya anaga Kenya iyo Ethiopia.



Webiyada Jubba iyo Shabelle waxay ka asalmaan Ethiopia, biyaha ay Somalia keenaan 90% waxay ka soo rogmadaan buuraha bariga Ethiopia. Kenya iyo Ethiopia waxaan la wadaagnaa webiga Dawa oo ku darsama webiga Jubba.
Jubba iyo Shabeelle waxay ka mid yihiin 276 webiyo iyo harooyin caalamka ka jira oo ka dhexeeya ama iskaga goosha 2 waddan iyo wixii ka badan. Xeerka Caalamiga ah ee soo jireenka ah (International Customary Law) ayaa kala xakameyn jirey waddamada haddii la isku qabsado isticmaalka biyaha la wadaago. Laakiin Qaramada Midoobay ayaa u arkay in khatar dagaal iyo iska hor imaad joogta ah ay dhici karto haddii aan la helin Heshiis Caalami ah oo qoran, oo bartilmaame u noqda xeerka guud ee isticmaalka, daryeelka iyo ilaalinta kheyraadka biyaha soohdimaha ka gudba.
Kadib wadahadalo, hindise heshiisyo iyo wacyigelin soo socotay muddo 40 sano ah, waxaa Golaha Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay u suurogashay in 136 waddan ay ku shiriso New York, 1997 si loo saxiixo heshiiska “The Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourse”, oo loo soo gaabiyo “UN Watercourses Convention”. 106 waddan ayaa ogolaadey in ay saxiixaan heshiiska, 3 waddan ayaa diiday (Turkey, China iyo Burundi) 27 waddan waa ka aamuseen (Ethiopia iyo Masar ayaa ka mid ah). Heshiisku si uu u dhaqangalo wuxuu u baahnaa in ugu yaraan 35 waddan ay soo ansixiyaan (ratification). 17 sano ayey qaadatey in la helo 35 ratification. Heshiisku wuxuu dhaqangaley 17.04.2014 kadib markii Vietnam ay noqotay waddankii 35aad ee soo ansixiyey heshiiska caalimiga ee biyaha macaan ee soohdimaha jeexa.
Waddamada Africa Bari  ma jiro mid ansixiyey heshiiskaan (ratification), laakiin waxaa saxiixay 1997, Kenya, Djibouti iyo Sudan. Ethiopia iyo Tanzania waa ka amuseen. Uganda iyo Somalia waa ka maqnaayeyyn shirka. Hadda Kenya iyo Tanzania waxay wadaan in ay ku biiraan heshiiska (accession).
Ansixinta iyo dhaqangelinta heshiiska caalamiga waxaa ka warwareegaya qaar ka mid ah waddamada Qulqulka Sare (Upstream countries), maadaama biyuhu dhulkooda ka soo qulqulaan, ayagoo ka soo horjeeda in waddamada Qulqulka Hoose(Downstream countries) ku farageliyaan kheyraadka biyaha la wadaago.
IGAD wax ay waddaa barnaamij ay ugu sameynayso waddamada xubnaha ka ah siyaasad loo dhan yahay oo ku saabsan isticmaalka iyo ilaalinta kheyraadka biyaha la wadaago. January 2015 waxaa Addis Abeba lugu saxiixay Igad Regional Water Policy oo soo xiganaaya mabaadii'da guud ee UN Watercourses Convention. Waxaa la wadaa hadda dhameystirka Protocol-kii lugu dhaqan gelin lahaa policy-ga (Ethiopia ayaa hortaagan habsami u socodka ansixinta protocol-ka, inkastoo aysan si official ah u sheegayn).
Soomaaliya waa in ay ka mid noqoto UN Watercourses Convention 1997 si ay u difaacdo kheyraadkeeda biyaha oo hadda ka dayacan. Xeerka Caalamiga wuxuu Soomaaliya xaq u siinayaa in ay Ethiopia iyo Kenya kula xisaabtamo sida ay u isticmaalayaan biyaha webiyada Jubba iyo Shabeelle. Heshiisku wuxuu ku waajibinayaa wadamada biyaha wadaaga in ay is weydaarsadaan macluumaadka tayada iyo tirada biyaha (art.9); in ay biyaha u isticmaalaan si isu dheelitiran oo maangal ah (art.5 equitable and reasonable utilization and participation); in marka ay isticmaalayaan biyaha dhulkooda mara, ay qaadaan talaabo kasta oo ay kaga hortagiyi karaan in ay u geystaan khasaaro lixaadle waddanka biyaha la wadaaga (art.7, obligation not to cause significant harm); in haddii ay dhacdo iska hor imaad baahi isticmaal, mar walba muhiimadda la siiyo biyaha aas aasiga u ah nolosha bani adamka, sida baahida biyaha la cabo ama cuntida lugu soo saarto (art.10, relationship between different kind of uses); in ay waajib tahay in la iswaydaarsado akhbaar, wadatashi laga sameeyo, haddii ay muhiim noqotana wadahadal la galo, si loo darso saameynta ay ku yeelan karaan mashaariicda la qorsheynayo in lagu sameeyo kheyraadka biyaha la wadaago (sida biyo xireenada, mashaariicda waraabka, danab abuurka); art.11, information concerning planned measures); in ay waajib tahay in la isku wargeliyo ka hor inta aan la bilaabin hirgelinta mashaariicda sababi kara dhibaato lid ku ah danaha wadanka biyaha lala wadaago, si waddanka kale loo siiyo fursad uu daraasaad ugu sameeyo mashariicda waddanka kale qorsheynaayo in uu ku farageliyo kheyraadka biyaha iyo dhibaatada uga imaan karta haddii mashruucaas la hawlgeliyo (art.12, notification concerned planned measures with possible adverse effects); dariiqa u furan waddankii asaga oo aan wax wadatashi ah lalasameyn webigii la wada lahaa laga fuliyey ama la qorsheeyey mashaariic dhibaato ku ah danihiisa (art.18, procedures in the absence of notification).
Somaliya waxay si degdeg ah ugu baahan tahay in ay xafidato, daraasaad ka sameyso xaaladda kheyraadkeeda biyaha, si ay xuquuqdeeda u difaacato. UN Watercourse wuxuu na siinayaa gaashaankii iyo warankii aan difaac iyo weerar-ba ku geli lahayn. Waxaan ka mid noqoneynaa bulshada Caalamka ee aaminsan ka wadashaqaynta iyo iska kaashiga maamulka, isticmaalka, daryeelka iyo ilaalinta kheyraadka biyaha. Waa in xisaabta lugu daro in dadka Ethiopia ay tiradoodu sii mareyso 90 milyan oo labo jibaarmi doona 20 sano gudahood! Haddii aan hadda la bilaabin sidii biyaha loo difaaci lahaa waxaa imaan doona wakhti ay adag tahay meel wax laga bilaabo.
Ethiopia iyo Somaliya maadaama aysan saxiixin ama ansixin Heshiiska Qaramada Midoobey ee Biyaha Soohdimaha iskaga goosha, maxay macna sameynaysaa in Somaliya heshiiska ku biirto?
Marka hore, haddii Somaliya ay xubin ka noqoto UN Watercourse Convention 1997, heshiisyada ay Kenya iyo Ethiopia wadagalaan ee ku saabsan webiga Dawa (sida hadda ay wadaan) wax saameyn ah kuma yeelan doonaan xuquuqdii Somaliya, wax kasta oo ay sameeyaana waxay xadgudub ku noqoneysaa xeerka caalamiga (international customary law), haddii ay dacwo noqoto oo International Court of Justice ama Arbitration kiis-ku tago (waa markii ay fashilmaan wada hadaladii iyo wada xaajoodkii tooska ahaa), Somaliya waxay haysataa caddeyn ah in lagu xadgudbay xeerkii caalamka, waxana waajib ku noqoneysa Ethiopia iyo Kenya in ay dib u saxaaan (magdhow-na ka bixiyaan) khaladka iyo khasaraha ay u geysteen Somaliya biyaheeda. In wadatashiga iyo iswargelintu ay tahay waajib xeerka caalamka u dhigan ah, waxaa ka markhaati ah wargelintii Somaliya ay wargelisay Ethiopia markii uu socday mashruucii biyo xireenka Baardheere 1987. Mashruucaas hay'addii maalgelineysay (World Bank), ayaa Somaliya u sheegtay in ay Ethiopia iyo Kenya wargeliso maadaama ay yihiin wadamada Qulqulka sare (upstream) oo xaq u leh in ay talo ka dhiibtaan mashruucii  saameyn ku yeelan kara baahidooda. Somalia waxay ka codsatay World Bank in ay la xiriirto Ethiopia, maadaama xiriirka labada waddan uusan fiicnayn wakhtigaas. Ethiopia markii ay heshay warqaddii World Bank-iga ee mashruucii Baardheere, waxay ku soo jawaabtey diidmo qayaxan, ayadoo ku andacooneysa in Baardheere Project ay carqalad ku tahay mashaariic ay ayadu horey u qorsheysay oo isticmaali lahaa biyaha webiyada Ethiopia ee Jubba biyaha siiya.  World Bank ayaan ku qancin jawaabta Ethiopia, wuxuuna magacaabay guddi khuburo ah oo seddex qof ka kooban (2 injineer iyo hal sharciyaqaan) si ay daraasaad ugu sameeyaan cabashada Ethiopia. Gudigii khuburadu wuxuu soo saarey warbixin caddeysay in mashruuca Baardheere uusan wax saameyn ah ku lahayn baahida ay Ethiopia sheeganeyso. Kadib, World Bank wuxuu fasaxay lacagtii lagu maalgelin lahaa biyoxireenkii Baardheere. Laakiin casharka halkaas aan ka baraneyno waxaa weeye in Ethiopia ay aqoonsatey in iswargelinta (obligation to notify planned measures) mashariicda la qorsheynaayo in la hirgeliyo, oo isbedel ku sameyn kara tayada iyo tirada biyaha, ay tahay waajib xeer caalami ah.
Waxaa loo baahan yahay Xakuumadda iyo Baarlamaanku in ay dareen Qaran muujiyaan oo ay sida ugu dhakhsaha badan ugu gudbiyaan warqaddii ka mid noqoshada heshiiska UN Watercourses Convention Xafiiska Xoghaya Guud ee Qaramada Midoobey.
Dr Cabdulqaadir Maxamed Tahlil wuuu horay la taliye u ahaa wasiirka tamarta iyo biyaha ee dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya
Annex I: UN Watercourses ConventionUN Watercoureses Convention 
Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational uses of International Watercourses 1997
Procedures Accession Ratification
UN Watercourses Convention Voting Records
Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational uses of international water courses
thumbnail Title: Sidee loo difaaci karaa webiyada Somaliya la wadaagto Ethiopia iyo Kenya?..
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Published :2016-04-20T04:30:00+07:00
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Sidee loo difaaci karaa webiyada Somaliya la wadaagto Ethiopia iyo Kenya?..



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